Eradicate Cancer 2018March 15 - 17, 2018 Melbourne Convention & Exhibition Centre

Key Words and Definitions

Immunotherapy

the prevention or treatment of disease with substances that stimulate the immune response

checkpoint blockade

 

Drugs or drug candidates that inhibit/block the inhibitory checkpoint molecules (above) are confusingly sometimes known as immune checkpoint inhibitors; this idea is often referred to as immune checkpoint blockade, or simply checkpoint blockade.

Immune reconstitution 

Immune reconstitution is the restoration of immune cell number and function including adaptive immunity (primarily T cells and antibodies) and innate immunity (eg NK cells) inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) (also known as immune recovery syndrome) is a condition seen in some cases of AIDS or immunosuppression, in which the immune system begins to recover, but then responds to a previously acquired opportunistic infection with an overwhelming inflammatory response.

Cancer Vaccines

A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that either treats existing cancer or prevents development of a cancer. Vaccines that treat existing cancer are known as therapeutic cancer vaccines.

CAR-T cells

For years, the foundations of cancer treatment were surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Over the last two decades, targeted therapies like imatinib (Gleevec®) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®)—drugs that target cancer cells by homing in on specific molecular changes seen primarily in those cells—have also cemented themselves as standard treatments for many cancers.

But over the past several years, immunotherapy—therapies that enlist and strengthen the power of a patient’s immune system to attack tumors— has emerged as what many in the cancer community now call the “fifth pillar” of cancer treatment.

A rapidly emerging immunotherapy approach is called adoptive cell transfer (ACT): collecting and using patients’ own immune cells to treat their cancer. There are several types of ACT (see “ACT: TILs, TCRs, and CARs”), but the one that is closest to producing a treatment approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is called CAR T-cell therapy.

https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/research/car-t-cells

What is Cancer immunotherapy?

Immunotherapy is treatment that uses certain parts of a person’s immune system to fight diseases such as cancer. This can be done in a couple of ways:

  • Stimulating your own immune system to work harder or smarter to attack cancer cells
  • Giving you immune system components, such as man-made immune system proteins

Some types of immunotherapy are also sometimes called biologic therapy or biotherapy.

In the last few decades immunotherapy has become an important part of treating some types of cancer. Newer types of immune treatments are now being studied, and they’ll impact how we treat cancer in the future.

Immunotherapy includes treatments that work in different ways. Some boost the body’s immune system in a very general way. Others help train the immune system to attack cancer cells specifically.

Immunotherapy works better for some types of cancer than for others. It’s used by itself for some of these cancers, but for others it seems to work better when used with other types of treatment.

https://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatments-and-side-effects/treatment-types/immunotherapy/what-is-immunotherapy.html

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy (Immuno-oncology or Immunooncology) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer. Immunotherapies can be categorized as active, passive or hybrid (active and passive). These approaches exploit the fact that cancer cells often have molecules on their surface that can be detected by the immune system, known as tumour-associated antigens (TAAs); they are often proteins or other macromolecules (e.g. carbohydrates). Active immunotherapy directs the immune system to attack tumor cells by targeting TAAs. Passive immunotherapies enhance existing anti-tumor responses and include the use of monoclonal antibodies, lymphocytes and cytokines.

Among these, multiple antibody therapies are approved in various jurisdictions to treat a wide range of cancers.[1] Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system that bind to a target antigen on the cell surface. The immune system normally uses them to fight pathogens. Each antibody is specific to one or a few proteins. Those that bind to tumor antigens treat cancer. Cell surface receptors are common targets for antibody therapies and include CD20, CD274 and CD279. Once bound to a cancer antigen, antibodies can induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, activate the complement system, or prevent a receptor from interacting with its ligand, all of which can lead to cell death. Approved antibodies include alemtuzumab, ipilimumab, nivolumab, ofatumumab and rituximab.

Active cellular therapies usually involve the removal of immune cells from the blood or from a tumor. Those specific for the tumor are cultured and returned to the patient where they attack the tumor; alternatively, immune cells can be genetically engineered to express a tumor-specific receptor, cultured and returned to the patient. Cell types that can be used in this way are natural killer cells, lymphokine-activated killer cells, cytotoxic T cells and dendritic cells. The only US-approved cell-based therapy is Dendreon's Provenge, for the treatment of prostate cancer.

Interleukin-2 and interferon-α are cytokines, proteins that regulate and coordinate the behaviour of the immune system. They have the ability to enhance anti-tumor activity and thus can be used as passive cancer treatments. Interferon-α is used in the treatment of hairy-cell leukaemia, AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, follicular lymphoma, chronic myeloid leukaemia and malignant melanoma. Interleukin-2 is used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer_immunotherapy

Cytokine storm

Gene editing of immune

Clinical trials

Cancer immunotherapy (Immuno-oncology or Immunooncology) is the use of the immune system to treat cancerImmunotherapies can be categorized as active, passive or hybrid (active and passive). These approaches exploit the fact that cancer cells often have molecules on their surface that can be detected by the immune system, known as tumour-associated antigens (TAAs); they are often proteins or other macromolecules (e.g. carbohydrates). Active immunotherapy directs the immune system to attack tumor cells by targeting TAAs. Passive immunotherapies enhance existing anti-tumor responses and include the use of monoclonal antibodieslymphocytes and cytokines.

Among these, multiple antibody therapies are approved in various jurisdictions to treat a wide range of cancers.[1] Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system that bind to a target antigen on the cell surface. The immune system normally uses them to fight pathogens. Each antibody is specific to one or a few proteins. Those that bind to tumor antigens treat cancer. Cell surface receptors are common targets for antibody therapies and include CD20CD274 and CD279. Once bound to a cancer antigen, antibodies can induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, activate the complement system, or prevent a receptor from interacting with its ligand, all of which can lead to cell death. Approved antibodies include alemtuzumabipilimumabnivolumabofatumumab and rituximab.

Active cellular therapies usually involve the removal of immune cells from the blood or from a tumor. Those specific for the tumor are cultured and returned to the patient where they attack the tumor; alternatively, immune cells can be genetically engineered to express a tumor-specific receptor, cultured and returned to the patient. Cell types that can be used in this way are natural killer cellslymphokine-activated killer cellscytotoxic T cells and dendritic cells. The only US-approved cell-based therapy is Dendreon's Provenge, for the treatment of prostate cancer.

Interleukin-2 and interferon-α are cytokines, proteins that regulate and coordinate the behaviour of the immune system. They have the ability to enhance anti-tumor activity and thus can be used as passive cancer treatments. Interferon-α is used in the treatment of hairy-cell leukaemiaAIDS-related Kaposi's sarcomafollicular lymphomachronic myeloid leukaemia and malignant melanoma. Interleukin-2 is used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma.


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